Preliminary program

The program for the workshop is shown below and is subject to change. Please visit this page regularly for updates.

Click on the icons below to show more information.

Thursday 16.11.2017

Time Session Presenter
08:30 - 09:00 Registration, Tea, Coffee
 
09:00 - 10:30 Introduction to Space Weather Chair: Brett Anderson, Bureau of Meteorology, GM Aviation, Land & Maritime Transport

Opening Session

Opening sessoin will host some quite prominent speakers. It will give the audience a good material related to space weather activities, challenges and current and future trends and developments.

09:00 - 09:10 Welcome and Workshop opening Brett Anderson, Bureau of Meteorology
09:10 - 09:30 Solar Origins of Space Weather Mark CM Cheung Lockheed Martin Solar & Astrophysics Lab, Palo Alto, CA, USA & Stanford University, CA, USA

Abstract

Space Weather near Earth and in interplanetary space is driven by dynamical changes on the Sun taking place over dynamical timescales ranging from seconds to years. The driving mechanisms of space weather are photons (in particular, UV, extreme UV, and X-rays), the magnetized solar wind, and coronal mass ejections from the Sun. Variability in all three drivers is controlled by the solar magnetic field. In this talk, we review the theory, and measurement and modeling techniques that help heliophysicists understand the causal link between solar magnetic fields and space weather impacts. We discuss how the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), a flagship Heliophysics mission of NASA, allows us to probe the fundamental physical processes that power solar flares and eruptions. Furthermore, we discuss how SDO contributes to operational space weather monitoring around the world (e.g. during the large X-flares of Sep 2017).

09:30 - 09:50 Space Weather in Planetary Systems Prof. Brad Carter Astrophysics Group, Computational Engineering and Science Research Centre, University of Southern Queensland

Abstract

"Space weather" is a convenient term for describing the continuously varying interplanetary space environment of particles, magnetic fields and electromagnetic radiation. Space weather in our Solar System is primarily due to solar magnetic fields that power the solar wind and solar activity. Research into space weather has now been extended to other planetary systems and their host stars, studies that are delivering indirect but empirical evidence on the evolution of Solar System space weather and its extremes. The most promising approach to further exoplanetary space weather research is spectropolarimetric monitoring of exoplanet host stars, as the data collected can be analysed to map stellar surface magnetic fields and physically model in three dimensions the resulting outer atmosphere of the star and its winds. This talk will review the rationale for, the methods used and the results from exoplanetary space weather research, and the implications for our Solar System and planet Earth.

09:50 - 10:10 Major Space Weather events and their impact. David Neudegg, Space Weather Services

Abstract

Solar-Terrestrial environment and the resultant space weather effects have a continuum of intensity, from the relatively minor day to day variations and usual diurnal, seasonal and solar cycle variations that may affect some technologies such as HF radio, to major (severe/extreme) events. Major events have impact on some high threshold technologies that are often not impacted by the usual variations; such as power grids, aviation GNSS precision navigation, and spacecraft. The effects of severe events on these technologies will be examined. Severe and extreme events are invariably caused by solar Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) associated with large x-ray flares or erupting filaments. The resultant geomagnetic disturbance is the most quantifiable measure of disturbance to the Terrestrial space environment, particularly as measured by the Dst storm index which will be explained. The SWS Severe Event Service sets a threshold of -250nT and as yet no severe events have been recorded in the relatively weak current solar cycle 24. However some have come close such as 17th March 2015 at -223 nT and 8th September 2017 at -240nT. A large CME issued on the solar far-side on 23rd July 2012 would probably have constituted a severe event if aimed at Earth. The effects of these events will be highlighted. For perspective on recent storm magnitudes in cycle 24, the famous Carrington event of 1859 (causing telegraph upsets) has been estimated to have had a Dst of -1,760 nT. This and the 1921 (New York electric train disruption) , 1989 (Quebec power grid outage) and 2003 (Halloween) storms will be examined.

10:10 - 10:30 Ionospheric Aerodynamics for Improved Space Domain Awareness Melrose Brown University of New South Wales Canberra

Abstract

The exponential growth in space activity worldwide is rapidly outpacing the ability of existing Space Domain Awareness (SDA) and Space Situational Awareness (SSA) systems to manage the population of objects orbiting Earth. Reliably tracking and predicting the trajectories of this population of space objects is essential for important satellite infrastructure to continue to operate safely and securely within the near-Earth space domain. Without such awareness, the ability to reliably access important orbital regimes may be lost if the risk of suffering an on-orbit collision becomes too great. UNSW Canberra Space has embarked upon a program of space research and technology development to inform future space traffic management systems and policy. The research is formed from a combination of physics-based numerical modelling, ground-based experi- mentation, optical and RF observation, and on-orbit satellite-based science missions. Space weather plays a crucial role within this program of research. The presentation will focus on the current research advances in the field of “ionospheric aerodynamics” being actively devel- oped at UNSW Canberra. The implications for space object trajectory modelling within the Low Earth Orbit environment and the role that space weather plays in determining the non- conservative force vector exerted on a spacecraft orbiting within Earth’s ionosphere will be discussed. Recent results from a ground-based experimental campaign conducted in collabo- ration with the University of Colorado to validate and expand the existing numerical research will be presented. Details of the on-orbit experimental program utilising the joint UNSW Canberra/DST Group Buccaneer Risk Mitigation Mission 3U CubeSat mission will further be outlined.

 
10:30 - 11:00 Morning Tea
 
11:00 - 12:20 Space Weather and Critical Infrastructure Chair: Andrew Kelly, Bureau of Meteorology, Manager Space Weather Services

SW Activities

This session will be focused on different SW activities, such as work towards SW policy, Space Situation Awareness etc.

11:00 - 11:20 Space Weather in the United Nations context Prof. Ian Mann, Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada

Abstract

Abstract will be added soon.

11:20 - 11:40 Risk Assessment on the impact of space weather on NSW Critical Infrastructure Matthew Thompson Office of Emergency Management, NSW Department of Justice

Abstract

TBC

11:40 - 12:00 Space Weather and Water infrastructure David Roser Water Research Centre, UNSW

Abstract

To be provided

12:00 - 12:20 US National Space Weather Strategy Bill Murtagh, Space Weather Prediction Center, Boulder USA

Abstract

TBC.

 
12:20 - 13:30 Lunch
 
13:30 - 15:10 Global Navigation Satellite Systems Chair: Kirco Arsov, Bureau of Meteorology, Space Weather Services

GNSS

This session is dedicated to NPI, ICAO and SBAS systems, highlighting the role of Space Weather (ionosphere) plays in these quite ambitious projects. It furthermore fosters also a contribution from industry and their usage of ionosphere for precise GNSS positioning. It highlights also the current GNSS based ionospheric models and gives overview on further possible modelling developments.

13:30 - 13:50 Earth Observation from Space John Le Marshall, Bureau of Meteorology

Abstract

Pending

13:50 - 14:10 The future of satellite positioning in Australia John Dawson, Geoscience Australia, Positioning Section Head

Abstract

Through its National Positioning Infrastructure (NPI) initiative the Australian government has developed a plan for further enabling of satellite positioning capability across all the major industry sectors. This presentation will overview the NPI, the development of a sovereign GNSS analysis capability, and the progress of the Australian Government’s trial of a Satellite-Based Augmentation System (SBAS). The SBAS trial will demonstrate for the first time anywhere second-generation (multi-constellation, multi-frequency) SBAS as well as regionally transmitted Precise Point Positioning (PPP) corrections which will be enable ten-centimetre positioning accuracies. The unique challenges and opportunities for Australia emerging from these developments will be highlighted.

14:10 - 14:30 SBAS Testbed Demonstration Project Update Julia Mitchell, CRCSI

Abstract

This SBAS Testbed is a satellite based positioning infrastructure that will available from June 2017 – January 2019. In simple terms the SBAS satellite provides a cost effective way to improve GPS signals from around 5 metres in accuracy to less than 1 metre. This trial is supported by a $12 million investment from the Australian Government as announced in January 2017 with a further $2 million from the New Zealand Government. CRCSI is coordinating and undertaking user testing of SBAS in Australia and New Zealand in conjunction with a benefit analysis of SBAS technology to Australia and New Zealand.

CRCSI partners, Geoscience Australia (GA) and Land Information New Zealand (LINZ) together with three global companies GMV, Inmarsat and Lockheed Martin will implement the SBAS testbed to evaluate three positioning signals for improved accuracy and integrity over Australia and New Zealand.

The positioning signals for evaluation are:

  • The current L1 Legacy service similar to that available in the United States (WAAS), Europe (EGNOS), Japan (MSAS), India (GAGAN) and Russia (SDCM).
  • A second-generation Dual Frequency Multi Constellation (DFMC) signal which will provide improvement over the legacy signal in a number of areas. This signal has not been tested anywhere in the world.
  • High-precision Precise Point Positioning (PPP) corrections with expected decimetre accuracies at user level.
  • Projects are currently running in Australia and NZ trialling the SBAS technology addressing applications in one or more of the following key sectors: aviation, road, rail, maritime, agriculture, resources, spatial, construction, utilities, and consumer. Julia will provide an update on the various projects, the various applications that have been identified where SBAS can be used and the benefits to the region.

    14:30 - 14:50 AllDayRTK high accuracy positioning services James Millner, Position Partners

    Abstract

    Position Partners owns and operates AllDayRTK, a high accuracy positioning service that aggregates Continuously Operating Reference Stations (CORS) from government and industry to provide seamless high accuracy corrections over Australia and New Zealand.

    High accuracy positioning services are evolving with a new generation of multi-GNSS which are core of many diverse applications - from agriculture to augmented reality, smart sensors to intelligent transport. Emerging positioning systems are also influencing new innovations, transforming our connected world filled with mobile devices that enable the internet of things.

    Yet the challenges in providing instantaneous high accuracy positioning and navigation services nationwide are not to be underestimated. Moreover, a key to success of these services, is a better understanding of space weather. For instance, complex atmospheric models need to be applied in real-time, that can correct the adverse effects of signal delays caused by the ionosphere and troposphere.

    To this end, Positon Partners are collaborating with the Bureau of Meteorology, Geoscience Australia and Cooperative Research Centre for Spatial information, collectively working towards improved Ionospheric algorithms and modelling techniques that will ultimately benefit Precise Point Positioning (PPP) methodology.

    In this presentation, Position Partners will highlight numerous AllDayRTK applications that rely on high accuracy positioning services, many of which will be the direct beneficiaries of our improved knowledge of space weather in the future.

    14:50 - 15:10 Predicting ionospheric scintillation for users of Global Navigation Satellite System signals Brett A. Carter, SPACE Research Centre, RMIT

    Abstract

    The reliance of many modern technological systems on satellite radio signals has led to increased vulnerability due to the Earth’s ionosphere. One clear example of this vulnerability is the influence of an ionospheric phenomenon called an “Equatorial Plasma Bubble”, which induces amplitude and phase scintillations on L-band radio waves that are used by Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers. These L-band ionospheric scintillation events are rather common during the sunset-to-midnight hours in low-latitude regions (within +/- 25 deg of the magnetic equator), exhibiting both a seasonal and daily variability. During peak scintillation seasons (i.e., during the months surrounding the March and September equinoxes in the Australiasian longitude sector), the chance of scintillations occurring on any given night is more than 50%. Therefore, ionospheric scintillation events are much more common than the highly publicised extreme geomagnetic storms, which typically occur a few times per 11-year solar cycle. The regularity of ionospheric scintillation events, and their adverse influence on many modern technological systems that use GNSS, has further accelerated global research efforts to understand the driving mechanisms of Equatorial Plasma Bubbles, with the ultimate goal of accurately predicting their occurrence. This contribution will review recent scientific progress on accurately predicting Equatorial Plasma Bubbles/ionospheric scintillation events, including recent successes and future challenges. In the context of these recent successes, future plans for rolling out global ionospheric scintillation predictions will be discussed.

     
    15:10 - 15:40 Afternoon Tea
     
    15:40 - 17:00 Aurora Chair: Rakesh Panwar, Bureau of Meteorology, Space Weather Services

    Aurora

    This session is going to be focused on the phenomena of auroras. Presentations will be given by experts about the science of auroras, how aurora forecasts are done in reality in the space weather forecast centres, what information and services are available from the Space Weather Services Section of the Bureau of Meteorology about aurora viewing conditions, and how to photograph auroras.

    15:40 - 16:00 Auroras: a user's guide Prof. Fred Menk, University of Newcastle

    Abstract

    Auroras have fascinated humans since the earliest times. Their appearance ranges from a fairly uninteresting dull glow in the sky to stunningly active displays brighter than the full moon and sweeping, rotating and pulsating across the entire sky. Auroras are the most visible evidence that our Earth lives in the Sun’s outer atmosphere. This results in highly variable electric and magnetic fields that accelerate charged particles. Auroras and associated phenomena therefore have important impacts on modern technology. For example, many hundreds of satellites in polar, low Earth orbits pass through the auroral regions over 50 times each day. This presentation outlines why, where and when auroras occur, gives some tips on observing and photographing them, and discusses some effects on technological systems ranging from spacecraft to electricity distribution networks and long pipelines.

    16:00 - 16:20 Aurora photography Margaret Sonnemann, Author of The Aurora Chaser's Handbook

    Abstract

    TBC
    16:20 - 16:40 Auroras: How do we forecast them in reality? Rakesh Panwar, Bureau of Meteorology, Space Weather Services

    Abstract

    The auroras are created due to the effects of coronal mass ejections and coronal holes. This presentation will be focused on the real work that the Space Weather Forecasters do to predict auroras.

    16:40 - 17:00 Space Weather Services' New Aurora Webpages Jeanne Young, Bureau of Meteorology, Space Weather Services

    Abstract

    In response to feedback from our large community of aurora watchers, the Bureau of Meteorology’s Space Weather Services (SWS) has created a new Aurora section on our website. The new webpages display information that helps in determining the current aurora viewing conditions. The information includes current aurora notices (alerts, watches or outlooks), geomagnetic indices, solar wind parameters, satellite images of cloud cover and moon phase. The auroral oval tool has been improved with an interactive map that can be zoomed and panned, animations over time showing the estimated auroral oval boundaries and visibility limits for the observed levels of space weather activity, and associated aurora sightings from the SWS archive including descriptions, locations and photographs if available. This talk will give a demonstration of the new webpages and aurora oval tool as well as explain how the community can help us improve our estimates of the aurora visibility limits by sending us reports of aurora sightings.



    Friday 17.11.2017

    <
    Time Session Presenter
    08:30 - 09:00 Tea, Coffee
     
    09:00 - 10:30 The Impact of Geomagnetically induced Currents on Power Networks and Pipelines Chair: Richard Marshall, Bureau of Meteorology, Space Weather Services

    Abstract

    Will be provided by Richard Marshall.

    09:00 - 09:15 Space Weather activities within the national Energy Market Australian Energy Market Operator

    Abstract

    Pending

    09:15 - 09:30 GIC monitoring equipment within the Queensland Transmission network Powerlink, Queensland
    09:30 - 09:45 New Zealand Long term Geomagnetically Induced Current Observations: Peak Current Estimates and Mitigation Approaches for Extreme Geomagnetic Storms Michael Dalzell,, Transpower New Zealand Limited, Wellington, New Zealand

    Abstract

    Craig J. Rodger1, Daniel H. Mac Manus1, Tim Divett1, Michael Dalzell2, Alan W. P. Thomson3, Ellen Clarke3, Tanja Petersen4 and Mark A. Clilverd5

    1. Department of Physics, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand
    2. Transpower New Zealand Limited, Wellington, New Zealand
    3. British Geological Survey, Edinburgh, United Kingdom
    4: GNS Science, Lower Hutt, New Zealand
    5: British Antarctic Survey (NERC), Cambridge, United Kingdom

    Transpower New Zealand Limited has measured DC currents in transformers in the New Zealand electrical network at multiple South Island locations. The measurements provide an unusually long and spatially detailed set of Geomagnetically Induced Current (GIC) measurements. GIC are a clear hazard to the New Zealand electrical network, with the loss of a $2 million transformer in November 2001 during a severe magnetic storm. Near continuous archived DC current data exist since 2001, starting with 12 different substations, and expanding from 2009 to include 17 substations. From 2001-2015 a total of 61 individual transformers were monitored. Primarily the measurements were intended to monitor the impact of the High Voltage DC system linking the North and South Islands when it is operating in "Earth return" mode. However, after correcting for Earth return operation, only GIC remain in the measurements. We have recently started a research project to analyse the New Zealand GIC dataset in order to better understand the occurrence and impact of GIC to the New Zealand electrical network. Of particular focus is the peak GIC values expected during extreme geomagnetic storms. We are working with Transpower New Zealand Limited to examine existing, and recommend options to, their GIC mitigation plans. Initial results from that effort will be discussed. In addition, we have worked on looking at the detailed GIC observations from the multiple measuring locations. As expected, we find that in most locations and for most times the observed GIC is best correlated with the rate of change of the horizontal component of the geomagnetic field. Using the ~14 year dataset and results from previous extreme studies (Kelly et al, 2014), we have estimated the likely extreme GIC magnitude expected at the transformer which was lost in November 2001. This is ~640-2300 A, depending on the storm case used, which should be compared with our estimate of 100 A during the failure event.

    09:45 - 10:00 Modelling GICs in Australian power network Richard Marshall, Bureau of Meteorology, Space Weather Services

    Abstract

    Pending

    10:00 - 10:15 The impact of GICs on long pipelines Layton Manuel, Jemena

    Abstract

    Pending

    10:15 - 10:30 Space Weather Services' GIC products Jeanne Young, Bureau of Meteorology, Space Weather Services

    Abstract

    Geomagnetically Induced Currents (GICs) flow in long grounded conductors such as power grids and pipelines as a result of the geoelectric field associated with time variations of the geomagnetic field. The Bureau of Meteorology’s Space Weather Services (SWS) uses geomagnetic data collected at a number of magnetometer sites to calculate GIC indices across the Australian region. The GIC index has been shown to be a good indicator of space weather activity that is more suitable for pipeline and power networks than indices such as the A- and K-indices and dB/dt. It can also be used as a proxy for the geoelectric field. The SWS website currently provides a nowcast of the geoelectric field across the Australian region through a map which displays a grid of the GIC-index vectors and contours of the GIC-index magnitudes. In addition, time series plots of GIC-indices from individual magnetometer stations can also be obtained on request. SWS is working on improving this service, with the aim of providing estimates of GICs in power networks and pipe-to-soil potentials. Given the electrical and spatial parameters of the power and pipeline networks, the GICs flowing in the networks can be modelled in near real-time from geomagnetic data. For power networks, the GICs flowing to/from ground at the network nodes can be estimated. For pipeline networks, the pipe-to-soil potentials can be calculated along the pipes. Historical or near real-time data will be available through the SWS' Space Weather API. This talk will give a demonstration of a prototype of the application.

     
    10:30 - 11:00 Morning Tea
     
    11:00 - 12:30 Defence Chair: Murray Parkinson, Bureau of Meteorology, Space Weather Services

    Defence session summary

    Prior to the 20th century, defence operations were confined to the domains of land, sea and air. Climate, weather, ocean currents and waves have always affected the success or failure of an operation. By the mid-20th century, defence operations began to make use of the space domain. The space domain has become critical to the success of a modern operations. Just as it is important to predict and understand how climate and weather will affect an operation, it is important to predict and understand how space weather will affect susceptible operations and systems. This session focuses on defence units, operations and projects known to be impacted by space weather. All of the presentations are at the unclassified level.

    11:00 - 11:10 Introductory talk to Defence Session. Murray Parkinson, Bureau of Meteorology, Space Weather Services

    Abstract

    Pending

    11:10 - 11:30 Defence space activities. GPCPT Darren May, Defence Space Coordination Office

    Abstract

    Pending

    11:30 - 11:50 JP9101 PROJECT PHOENIX, Enhanced Defence High Frequency Communication System. LTCOL James Brownlie and Mr Milan Koprek, Joint Capabilities Group

    Abstract

    Pending

    11:50 - 12:10 About 1RSU Operations. SGT Ryan McKee, No 1 Remote Sensor Unit (1RSU)

    Abstract

    Pending

    12:10 - 12:30 JORN related science. Trevor Harris, DST Group NSID HFRB

    Abstract

    Pending

     
    12:30 - 13:30 Lunch
     
    13:30 - 15:00 HF and Aviation Chair: Zahra Bouya and Vickal Kumar, Bureau of Meteorology, Space Weather Services

    HF and Aviation session summary

    High frequency (HF) system is used for long distance communication by bouncing signals off the ionosphere. It is one of the main communication systems used by the Australian Defence, Aviation and Navy services, and as well as by the general public when needed – in emergency, outback driving and enthusiastic experiments. As is the case with all space-based communication system, the condition of the ionosphere has a significant impact on the quality of HF communication links. The ionospheric properties can change on nearly all temporal and spatial scales, and is also susceptible to space and meteorological disturbances. This session focuses on HF policies, HF setup of some industries and also highlights how various ionospheric phenomena impact the HF communications.

    13:30 - 13:50 HF ICAO requirements Sue O’ Rourke , Bureau of Meteorology

    Abstract

    Space weather is an important consideration for the aviation industry. It can cause disruptions to communications, navigation and surveillance systems. The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) has been working to develop international standards and recommended practices for space weather that may present a hazard to aviation operations. .

    13:50 - 14:10 Detection and characterisation of travelling ionospheric disturbances in support of HF sky-wave radar Andrew Heitmann , Manuel Cervera, Andrew Cool, Robert Gardiner-Garden, Trevor Harris, David Holdsworth, David Netherway, Brett Northey, Lenard Pederick, Anne Unewisse & Bruce Ward, Defence Science & Technology (DST) Group, Australia

    Abstract

    HF sky-wave radar is one of a growing number of technologies sensitive to space weather, through its interaction with the ionosphere for over-the-horizon radio propagation. The ionosphere is routinely disturbed by a number of external factors, on a range of spatial and temporal scales; these include solar events, geomagnetic activity, and atmospheric gravity waves. Travelling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) are one class of disturbance of particular interest to DST Group, as these wave-like perturbations result in off-angle propagation that can degrade the registration of target ground coordinates if left unmodelled.

    The Jindalee Operational Radar Network (JORN) is supported by an extensive Australian network of ionospheric sounders for constructing its real-time regional model of electron density. While this model successfully captures the bulk of the medium- to large-scale variability in the ionosphere, many TIDs are unable to be characterised by the current system, either due to limitations in the parametric form fitted to the sounder data, or subsequent smoothing and outlier rejection. Recent DST Group experimental campaigns, such as DINIS, SpICE and ELOISE, have therefore sought to augment the JORN sounder network with additional sensors and higher observation revisit rates, to better understand the nature and impact of TIDs on HF propagation.

    This presentation will highlight some of DST Group's recent activities in TID observation and modelling, including:

  • Sounder observations at very fine spatial and temporal scales (less than the horizontal wavelength and period of medium-scale TIDs), that allow the spectrum of TIDs and their phase-fronts to be measured.
  • The development of experimental sounders to measure angle-of-arrival and Doppler on oblique ionospheric paths, and the identification of TID characteristics in these observables.
  • The use of parameterised perturbation models and ray-tracing to synthetically reproduce signatures of TIDs in ionograms.
  • Efforts to interpret and relate observations of TIDs from different instruments, both at HF and in optical (airglow) images.
  • 14:10 - 14:30 A real time model of Sporadic E in the Australian region. Robert Gardiner Garden, DST Group

    Abstract

    Sporadic E (Es) morphology and physics is very different to the normal physics of other ionospheric layers so it is generally treated and modelled very differently. Typically it is a very thin layer of ionisation (only 100m-1km thick compared to the normal E regions 10-25km) and so its HF propagation properties (when propagation exists) are generally quite like reflections from a mirror. This talk will describe a recently proposed real time model of Es that has been adapted to fit JORN ionospheric sounder data in real time. This model produces a conventional deterministic estimate of the height of the Es layer (hEs) but constructs a probabilistic cumulative distribution function to describe the probable value of the amplitude of Es i.e., foEs,  at any time or place in the Australian region.

    14:30 - 14:45 Recent Initiatives in Oblique HF at SWS Philip Maher , Bureau of Meteorology, Space Weather Services

    Abstract

    Space Weather Services (formerly IPS Radio and Space Services) has had a long history of HF products derived from its network of Vertical Incidence Sounder (VIS) Ionosondes. This talk will focus on oblique path propagation and new products and services in development here at SWS.

    14:45 - 15:00 Wrap-up talk on ionosphere variability. Vickal Kumar, Bureau of Meteorology, Space Weather Services

    Abstract

    Pending

     
    15:00 - 15:30 Afternoon Tea
     
    15:30 - 16:30 SW Impact on Satellites and SATCOM Chair: David Neudegg, Bureau of Meteorology, Space Weather Services

    SW Impact on Satellites and SATCOM summary

    Satellites operate immersed in the electrically charged space environment, and need to transmit radio signals through it to the ground. They are exposed to high levels of radiation from high-energy particles, both from the Sun and those trapped in the Earths radiation belts. The energetic protons and electrons have different effects on the spacecraft and their characteristics change depending on the orbit; low, medium, or geostationary. Satellite orientation at geostationary orbit may also be affected by large geomagnetic disturbances. Radio signal with uplinked commands or downlinked data may also be distorted by large ionospheric variations, particularly at equatorial and polar latitudes.

    15:30 - 15:50 The Australian INSPIRE-2 / AU03 CubeSat for the QB50 Project Prof. Iver H. Cairns, University of Sydney and the INSPIRE-2 team

    Abstract

    The INSPIRE-2 / AU03 cubesat was accepted by the European Union's QB50 project on 19 August 2016, only 10 months after the project started on 30 September 2015, the last day of the 2015 Australian Space Research Conference. This 2-unit cubesat is the result of a very strong collaboration between the three participating universities, the University of Sydney, the Australian National University (ANU), and UNSW Australia. INSPIRE-2 carries 5 payloads: a multi-Needle Langmuir Probe (provided by QB50) to measure the electron number density of Earth's thermosphere and ionosphere as a result of daily variations and space weather events, including the so-called "plasma tubes in the sky"; Nanospec (U. Sydney), a photonic spectrograph that has a theoretical spectral resolution of 0.4 nm (for a mass below 50 grams), contains the first photonic lantern to fly in space, and is one path to a novel hyperspectral imager; a Radiation Counter (based on a Geiger-Muller tube) and a Microdosimeter, both from U. Sydney, to measure the counts of gamma rays and ionizing radiation along the orbit and so to study space weather; and the Kea GPS instrument (UNSW Australia) to provide locations, measure GPS signals scattered from the sea and land, and perform radio occultation experiments. In order to de-risk the project and to decrease the time required, the satellite's design and software are modi?ed versions of those for UNSW Australia's ECO / AU02 cubesat and Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) parts are used extensively. Boards for the instruments, the knife / burn circuits for releasing the communications and Langmuir probe antennas, and parts of the exterior structure were designed and built in Australia. INSPIRE-2 was primarily built and tested at U. Sydney and UNSW Australia, but underwent thermal vacuum and vibration testing at the AITC on Mt Stromlo. INSPIRE-2 and its fellow Australian QB50 cubesats were launched to the International Space Station (ISS) via an Atlas V rocket in April 2017, with release into space a month later. They are the first Australian satellites to be launched from the ISS, the first Australian-built satellites in space in 15 years, only the 4th to 6th Australian-built spacecraft to fly in space, and demonstrable progress in building Australia a real, sustainable, space capability. This paper will describe the mission, spacecraft, instruments, technology, and the first results in space.

    15:50 - 16:10 Radiation effects on spacecraft in Earth orbits David Neudegg, Bureau of Meteorology, Space Weather Services

    Abstract

    Spacecraft in Earth orbits are immersed in a high natural radiation environment that may be detrimental to their operation. The radiation environment at geostationary (GEO), medium-earth (MEO) and low-earth (LEO) orbits and their considerable variability will be described. Effects on spacecraft vary widely, such as Single Event Upset (SEU) caused by high-energy (>10MeV) protons and Deep Dielectric Discharge (DDD) or Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) caused by high-energy (>2MeV) electrons. The sources of the radiation in high-speed solar wind streams, solar particle events and geomagnetic storms will be described and examples of anomalies from COMSATs at GEO presented.

    16:10 - 16:30 Closing discussion Andrew Kelly, Manager Space Weather Services, Bureau of Meteorology